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Raw Material For Traditional Chinese Medicine

Bear gall bladder is traditionally used in Chinese medicine – a very ancient and very effective, because uses mostly natural ingredients treatment of animal and vegetable origin.

Bear gall bladder is produced by the largest digestive gland – bear liver. Studies have shown that the value lies in the composition of bile in it a substance called UDCA, which is present in the composition of human bile and lose their properties due to aging and disease. Bear gall bladder has been applied in medicine as a remedy, which included also there is a high concentration of active substances. Such a huge availability of the necessary components of a person held in Bear gall bladder due to the fact that the bear is a carnivore, the food which is rich in beneficial fats. Bear gall bladder is able to break down fats to the smallest fractions, improving intestinal peristalsis.

Bear gall bladder frees the body from parasites such as roundworm, pinworm, whipworm, giardia, opistarhi, Echinococcus and other, improves lipid metabolism, dissolve the cholesterol plaques.

Just Bear gall bladder effectively treats tumors (including cancer), gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer, gout, prostatitis, impotence, diseases associated with metabolic disorders, chronic pancreatitis, colitis, gastritis, relieves diabetes diabetes, removes radionuclides from the body, improves the immune system.

The data show the effectiveness of Bear gall bladder in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

Bear gall bladder - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine

Deer musk Moschus - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicineOnly the mature male Moschus produces musk. The substance occurs in only one location on the deer’s body: on its abdomen, just in front of its penis, is a hairy pouch known as the musk gland. This sac is about the size of a golf ball. It is composed of several layers of skin, with two openings immediately above the animal’s urethra.

In the early summer, unripe liquid musk drains into the gland from the surrounding tissues, and is stored there for some weeks or months. During the course of this time, the musk – 30 grams of it or so – “matures” into a granular, waxy, reddish-brown substance with an extremely potent and familiar smell.

When the musk has ripened – shortly before the autumn rutting season – the deer begin to discharge it mixed with their urine, apparently to mark their territory and attract females. (This behavior is familiar to anyone who has come in contact with a tomcat that “sprays.”) Even in winter, male musk deer have been reported to leave behind fragrant red snow, rather than yellow.

raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine
Musk, a strong-smelling secretion produced by the glands of Asia’s musk deer, has been used in perfumes and the traditional medicine of China and its neighbors for 5,000 years or more.

It is estimated that musk is currently being used in as many as 400 Chinese traditional remedies, making it one of the most common and most valuable medicinal products to come from an animal.

Deer musk Moschus - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine

Deers, generally all the members of the family Cervus. As thus denned, deer are artiodac-tyle ungulates (‘even-toed hoofed animals’), distinguished by the fact that, with very few exceptions, the head—in at least the male sex—bears branched deciduous antlers, which are shed and renewed each year. Further points of distinction from the members of the family Bovidse (cattle) lie in the teeth. In addition to the two central toes (digits three and four), on which the weight of the body is supported, deer almost always possess lateral toes, whose bony axis is more complete than in sheep and cattle. Early deer had very simple antlers, like those borne by a stag of the first year. But the development of antlers reached its maximum before the present period.
Continent antlers ascribed to near allies of tne existing red deer have been found exceeding in size those of living forms.

Deers - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine

 

Common Species of Deer:
1. Red Deer
2. Moose
3. Fallow Deer
4. Reindeer
5. Musk Deer

Antlers are outgrowths of the frontal bones, which occur in deer under many forms, and may be functionally compared with bones, which have quite a different structure. During their period of growth antlers are covered with a vascular, hairy skin, known as velevet, which is exceedingly sensitive and well supplied with blood. As the period of growth is completed the velvet dries up, is rubbed off, and leaves the bare and insensitive bone to constitute a powerful weapon of offence and defence. The atler is not attached directly to the scull, but to a stalk or pedicle of varing length, the junction of antler and redicle being marked by a bony ring, the burr. Beneath the burr bone absoption take place, with the result that, late in the season, the antler falls of its own weight, or is knocked of by the deer, to be renewed againg in the following spring.Except in the reindeer, antlers are confined to the male sex, and are altogether absent only in the musk-deer (Moschus) and the Chinese water-deer (Hydropotes). Their degree of development varies enormously from the minute points of the Chinese Elaphodus to the huge structures found in the extinct Irish deer or the living elk. A point of great interest in the parallelizm between the yearly increase in complexity of the antlers of living deer, and the similar increase in series of fossil forms of differnt areas.

Deer Antlers - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine

Typical Forms of Antlers:
1-9. Red Deer Antler (1, burr, enlarged)
10-14. Cervus tetraceros Antler (fossil)
15. Wapiti deer Antler
16. Reindeer Antler
17. Fallow deer Antler
18. Moose Antler
19. Roebuck Antler
20. Irish deer Antler (Fossil)

Reindeer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Reindeer
Reindeer (Cervus tarandus) – the only deer in which both males and females carry antlers. Reindeer small, summer – coffee-brown or gray-brown in the winter is quite colorful – from very light on the neck and the lower half of the head to the temnoburovato gray at the top of the head, back, legs and rump. The body length of 200 – 220 cm, height at withers 140 cm and a maximum weight of up to 220 kg in the autumn. Usually, the reindeer, especially tundra, much smaller and lighter. Their weight is just over a hundredweight.

Reindeer Antlers
Hard Horns are composed of compact bone substance and form as outgrowths of the frontal bones. At the beginning of the growth of horns filled with spongy tissue filled with blood, covered with soft velvety skin with hair and called this period of growth – Antlers. In the future, there is a rapid growth and by the fall of horns ossify, the skin dies and falls away. As a result of bone resorption of bone at the junction of the cup with a horn, horns dropping occurs, the fall in adult males, females spring reindeer. Such a change occurs annually.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
Regeneration of antlers in deer is accompanied not only by the growth of the trunk and forming processes, but also a profound change in the chemical composition of its internal structure. In this context, terms of preparation of antlers and horns of a stag determine their biological and pharmacological value. The drug is based on the powder obtained their reindeer antlers, boosts immunity, maintains and improves the blood, improves liver function, eliminates toxins, increases resistance to stress and physical activity.

Reindeer Antlers
Throughout the animal world there is nothing more wonderful than young neokostenevshie saturated with blood, covered with leather and velvet-like pile of deer horns – antlers. Such intensity of tissue regeneration does not know of any other body of the animal – the rate of growth of antlers is up to 2 cm per day. In the growing antlers of deer present adult embryonic stem cells, which is unique among mammals.

Categories of horns of deer:
Category A – must be fresh and new, large in size, color on the surface of dark brown, one horn by weight – not less than 1.3 kg;
Category B – also need to be fresh and new, but not large in size, color and dark brown, one horn must not weigh less than 1.3 kg;
Category C – cracked, the floor, the color of the surface of the white;
Category D – it might be old horns, rotten and crumbling. Prices are formed each year, depending on demand and the categories of horns.

Reindeer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Sika Deer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
Sika deer hard horns
Sika deer (Cervus nippon hotulorum) differs from other deers in their harmony and grace. The animal has a beautiful summer fur is entirely covered in stains, for which he received his name. Winter spots fully or partially disappear. Traditional “mirror” inherent Sika deer very small size. Hunting for sika deer in rut favorable, namely the period from September to January. In sika deer antlers, usually four-pointed.

Sika deer antlers
Antlers (horns young sika deer) are blood-filled sponge bone. Cut off in the spring and summer and preserved by cooking, hot, drying for 2 months. Canned antlers are used in folk medicine in Southeast Asia for more than 2000 years. The active ingredients in the antlers are multifaceted, but in summary the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, composed in 1596, Li Shi-Zheng, noted that the strength of antlers is in the blood contained in them. Lost blood sika deer antlers are not suitable for therapeutic purposes.
Sika deer antlers – a complex organ consisting of various, mostly young, growing and differentiating tissues.
– Outer covering – leather,
– Medium – intermediate,
– Center – brain (rich, thin-walled vessels, surrounded by a ring of loose connective tissue).
As the distance from the apex of the connective tissue is converted into cartilage, and even bone. In the future, the main substance of the cartilage starts to be postponed lime.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
From ancient times until the present time one of the most important sources of medicinal plants for traditional oriental medicine is Sika deer. Antlers at basic recipes of Eastern medicine, always pounded or ground into powder, and as such have taken as a medicine, often mixing with other powders. Studies of the XX century have confirmed that the blood of deer antlers and contains a huge amount of bioactive substances, protein compounds, energy in its pure natural form, which are necessary not only in the treatment of various diseases, but also as a preventative, a tonic for healthy people. Blood red deer, according to oriental medicine, considered as a means of prolonging life, and more recently, has been experimentally proved that the extracts from antlers and blood delay aging.

Sika Deer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Maral Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Maral Hard Horns
Maral (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) – a family of mammals, annual reset and re-grow a less massive (up to 25 kg) body like a horn. This is a unique example of a higher animal body, which has been repeatedly completely restored. At the same time with incredible speed grow all kinds of fabrics – leather, connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood vessels and nerves. It requires a lot of strength and a high concentration of substances that can maintain and regulate this complex process.

Maral Antlers
As acknowledged by the International Association of antlers, antlers Altai maral are most active in the world. The rapid growth of antlers begins in the spring in April and May during the high hormonal activity of the animal and ends in June. Late in the autumn, after the rut, the male maral resets ossified horns, and the following spring the cycle repeats. Antlers are cut red deer in the spring and summer.

Maral antlers can be used as a therapeutic raw materials from the third year of the deer. Complete its development deer reaches 6 – 7 years old, his antlers every year becomes more important and more processes. Adult maral antlers have up to six or eight, sometimes up to ten shoots on each branch.

Each appendix has its own name: the first supraorbital second supraorbital ice, medium, wolf, front main, rear. Upon the occurrence of full maturity horns on fork stop and subsequently maintain a constant number of processes. Old deer is considered aged 13-15 years old deer antlers are not as rich in blood and dosage strength of their much weaker.

Maral antlers are made up of 3 main layers. Exterior – normal skin, covered with a velvety nap. An external layer – a layer of fibrous connective tissue. This layer is penetrated by a large number of blood vessels, providing a growing Panthou extra food. The central part is filled with so-called “brain matter” is a precious embryonic connective tissue with cartilaginous inclusions and numerous blood vessels. In the medulla there are embryonic stem cells, and has its own centers of hematopoiesis.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
A study of Maral antlers as a medicinal plant began long ago. Many researchers, highlighting the main biologically active substance antlers, convinced over time that because of the drop, as it seemed to them unnecessary lost most of the components of the original substance of red deer antlers, and secrete a substance bears only a small part their biological activity, and significantly inferior in efficiency of the starting material. Scientists for many years have carefully studied the biochemical composition as antlers and blood Maral.

Maral Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Moose (Alces alces) – the largest representative of the deer family of modern and one of the largest animals of terrestrial fauna. Moose is significantly different in appearance from the other deers. The first horn of the male growing up in the late first and early in the second year of life, in the second year they have the appearance of a rather smooth and sharp needles, a length of about 20 – 30 cm. In March or in early April, its second spring a young moose resets these “spokes”, and instead begin to grow new antlers in April, has already forked ends. Moose Hard Horns grow in the form of thick, soft formations covered with fine velvety skin. They reach full growth for 2 – 2.5 months; in this period, moose antlers are tender and bleed damage. Summer Moose Hard Horns kosteneyut and dry up, the tops of their tapered, leather, covering them, dries and bursts, and in August moose rubbing against trees scraped off with this skin has got stronger horns, received a brownish color.

By the end of the second year of life of the moose-horn sculpin grow bifurcated, or “fork”, which he is in the third year. Thus there is a change of Moose Hard Horns and more. In the fourth year bull wears horns with three spikes on each. Horn between the first process and the apical fork slightly flattened, and shows the “shovel” these relatively more developed horns.

Every year, the horns are thicker, longer and harder. On the sixth or seventh year of the correctness of additional processes disrupted. Could add a year two appendages at either or both of the horns, or two years in a row can remain the same number of processes.

Do moose live in areas where they are often frightened and moose sick or injured correct growth of horns is severely impaired. Shovel stops formed or poorly developed horns are small and light, often with an uneven number of processes on both horns, even in the four-five-year steers.

The largest and most severe are moose antlers, along with 16 – 20 shoots. These horns have a wide and powerful shovel. They grasp the base of the horns and the socket is 34 – 36 centimeters.

Moose Hard Horns  - Raw Material for Traditional Chinese Medicine

In spite of the great advances of modern scientific medicine, traditional medicine is still the primary form of treating disease for the majority of people in developing countries, including China. Even among those to whom Western medicine is available, the number of people using one form or another of complementary or alternative medicine is rapidly increasing worldwide.

With its abundant botanical resources, China has been a pioneer in treating human diseases with medicinal herbs. The medicinal use of herbs in China by tradition has been attributed to a legendary emperor, Shen Nong (3494 BC), who tasted and tested plants and discovered their medicinal properties.
The recorded use of plants for medicinal purposes in China dates back to 2800 BC.

The most comprehensive classic herbal encyclopedia, Ben Cao Gang Mu, a description of formulas or prescriptions to treat human diseases, was published in the 16th century by Dr. Li Shizhen (1517-1593 AD). This original materia medica recorded over 350 crude drugs; since then a great number of drugs and prescriptions have been added. In 1958, the year of the Great Leap Forward, Chairman Mao declared that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was a vast treasure chest and challenged the Chinese people to validate its efficacy and to combine the best elements of Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM with modern Western medicine to improve the nation’s health-care delivery system.
In 1999, Hong Kong’s Chief Executive, Tong Chee-Hwa, announced his intention to develop Hong Kong as a world center for TCM.on the specific beneficial effects of Chinese herbal medicine. Some herbs commonly used in Chinese medicine have been studied and chemical constituents that could represent the therapeutic actions of the herbs have been identified.
However, numerous mechanisms are likely involved in the various actions of a single herbal medicine. Elucidation of these mechanisms will provide the scientific basis for establishing the efficacy and safety not only of Chinese herbal medicine, but all forms of medicinal herbs. In China, herbal medicines in the ancient tradition continue to be widely used. These medicines commonly contain ten or more herbs, thereby making it difficult to determine the pharmacological effects of individual drugs incorporated in prescriptions. In modern Western medicine, the use of a single chemical component is preferred in order to avoid drug interactions. In Chinese medical philosophy, therapeutic value and efficiency are increased by combining various herbs and ingredients in one prescription to treat a single disease. A compound prescription often consists of four different functional groups and each group usually comprises more than one herb. The “principal” provides the principal curative effect; the “adjuvant” helps strengthen the principal effect; the “auxiliary” relieves secondary symptoms or decreases the toxicity of the principal and the “conductant” directs the action of the principal to the target organ or site. There are several logical explanations for the philosophy of mixing several crude extracts to achieve greater benefits. First, crude drugs given in combination may act synergistically. Second, the combination may have unknown interactions that might diminish possible adverse side effects of one or more of the components. Third, the combination may prevent the gradual decline in effectiveness observed when single drugs are given over long periods of time. Chinese herbal medicine generally uses either the whole plant or crude extracts as medicines, which tend to include a wide range of chemical constituents. Neither the whole plant nor crude extracts deliver highly concentrated medicines. By contrast, conventional Western prescription drugs usually contain a single-molecule active ingredient to treat a single ailment. This practice is more likely to cause side effects than the gentler and less concentrated phytochemicals in traditional herbal medicines.
In recent scientific investigations conducted in China, active ingredients have been isolated from herbal preparations. Many studies have focused on the effects of active ingredients both in vivo and in vitro, and on providing pharmacological data compatible with the modern scientific view. However, it has been suggested that the quality of trials needs substantial improvement in order to promote evidence-based decision-making, and frequently it has not been determined whether actions of isolated compounds shown in vitro or in animal studies would be relevant to the doses of herbal medication used in clinical practice. More systematic analysis and testing of Chinese herbs are needed for the development of a standard set of therapeutic agents that may be administered with reliable efficacy and good quality control. In order for Chinese herbal medicine to be accepted as reliable alternative medicine, the safety of medicinal herbs and their efficacy for the treatment of specific diseases must be demonstrated. A first step is establishing reliable sourcesof ingredients.