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Deer Antlers

Antlers are outgrowths of the frontal bones, which occur in deer under many forms, and may be functionally compared with bones, which have quite a different structure. During their period of growth antlers are covered with a vascular, hairy skin, known as velevet, which is exceedingly sensitive and well supplied with blood. As the period of growth is completed the velvet dries up, is rubbed off, and leaves the bare and insensitive bone to constitute a powerful weapon of offence and defence. The atler is not attached directly to the scull, but to a stalk or pedicle of varing length, the junction of antler and redicle being marked by a bony ring, the burr. Beneath the burr bone absoption take place, with the result that, late in the season, the antler falls of its own weight, or is knocked of by the deer, to be renewed againg in the following spring.Except in the reindeer, antlers are confined to the male sex, and are altogether absent only in the musk-deer (Moschus) and the Chinese water-deer (Hydropotes). Their degree of development varies enormously from the minute points of the Chinese Elaphodus to the huge structures found in the extinct Irish deer or the living elk. A point of great interest in the parallelizm between the yearly increase in complexity of the antlers of living deer, and the similar increase in series of fossil forms of differnt areas.

Deer Antlers - Raw material for the traditional Chinese medicine

Typical Forms of Antlers:
1-9. Red Deer Antler (1, burr, enlarged)
10-14. Cervus tetraceros Antler (fossil)
15. Wapiti deer Antler
16. Reindeer Antler
17. Fallow deer Antler
18. Moose Antler
19. Roebuck Antler
20. Irish deer Antler (Fossil)

Reindeer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Reindeer
Reindeer (Cervus tarandus) – the only deer in which both males and females carry antlers. Reindeer small, summer – coffee-brown or gray-brown in the winter is quite colorful – from very light on the neck and the lower half of the head to the temnoburovato gray at the top of the head, back, legs and rump. The body length of 200 – 220 cm, height at withers 140 cm and a maximum weight of up to 220 kg in the autumn. Usually, the reindeer, especially tundra, much smaller and lighter. Their weight is just over a hundredweight.

Reindeer Antlers
Hard Horns are composed of compact bone substance and form as outgrowths of the frontal bones. At the beginning of the growth of horns filled with spongy tissue filled with blood, covered with soft velvety skin with hair and called this period of growth – Antlers. In the future, there is a rapid growth and by the fall of horns ossify, the skin dies and falls away. As a result of bone resorption of bone at the junction of the cup with a horn, horns dropping occurs, the fall in adult males, females spring reindeer. Such a change occurs annually.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
Regeneration of antlers in deer is accompanied not only by the growth of the trunk and forming processes, but also a profound change in the chemical composition of its internal structure. In this context, terms of preparation of antlers and horns of a stag determine their biological and pharmacological value. The drug is based on the powder obtained their reindeer antlers, boosts immunity, maintains and improves the blood, improves liver function, eliminates toxins, increases resistance to stress and physical activity.

Reindeer Antlers
Throughout the animal world there is nothing more wonderful than young neokostenevshie saturated with blood, covered with leather and velvet-like pile of deer horns – antlers. Such intensity of tissue regeneration does not know of any other body of the animal – the rate of growth of antlers is up to 2 cm per day. In the growing antlers of deer present adult embryonic stem cells, which is unique among mammals.

Categories of horns of deer:
Category A – must be fresh and new, large in size, color on the surface of dark brown, one horn by weight – not less than 1.3 kg;
Category B – also need to be fresh and new, but not large in size, color and dark brown, one horn must not weigh less than 1.3 kg;
Category C – cracked, the floor, the color of the surface of the white;
Category D – it might be old horns, rotten and crumbling. Prices are formed each year, depending on demand and the categories of horns.

Reindeer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Sika Deer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
Sika deer hard horns
Sika deer (Cervus nippon hotulorum) differs from other deers in their harmony and grace. The animal has a beautiful summer fur is entirely covered in stains, for which he received his name. Winter spots fully or partially disappear. Traditional “mirror” inherent Sika deer very small size. Hunting for sika deer in rut favorable, namely the period from September to January. In sika deer antlers, usually four-pointed.

Sika deer antlers
Antlers (horns young sika deer) are blood-filled sponge bone. Cut off in the spring and summer and preserved by cooking, hot, drying for 2 months. Canned antlers are used in folk medicine in Southeast Asia for more than 2000 years. The active ingredients in the antlers are multifaceted, but in summary the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, composed in 1596, Li Shi-Zheng, noted that the strength of antlers is in the blood contained in them. Lost blood sika deer antlers are not suitable for therapeutic purposes.
Sika deer antlers – a complex organ consisting of various, mostly young, growing and differentiating tissues.
– Outer covering – leather,
– Medium – intermediate,
– Center – brain (rich, thin-walled vessels, surrounded by a ring of loose connective tissue).
As the distance from the apex of the connective tissue is converted into cartilage, and even bone. In the future, the main substance of the cartilage starts to be postponed lime.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
From ancient times until the present time one of the most important sources of medicinal plants for traditional oriental medicine is Sika deer. Antlers at basic recipes of Eastern medicine, always pounded or ground into powder, and as such have taken as a medicine, often mixing with other powders. Studies of the XX century have confirmed that the blood of deer antlers and contains a huge amount of bioactive substances, protein compounds, energy in its pure natural form, which are necessary not only in the treatment of various diseases, but also as a preventative, a tonic for healthy people. Blood red deer, according to oriental medicine, considered as a means of prolonging life, and more recently, has been experimentally proved that the extracts from antlers and blood delay aging.

Sika Deer Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Maral Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Maral Hard Horns
Maral (Cervus elaphus sibiricus) – a family of mammals, annual reset and re-grow a less massive (up to 25 kg) body like a horn. This is a unique example of a higher animal body, which has been repeatedly completely restored. At the same time with incredible speed grow all kinds of fabrics – leather, connective tissue, cartilage, bone, blood vessels and nerves. It requires a lot of strength and a high concentration of substances that can maintain and regulate this complex process.

Maral Antlers
As acknowledged by the International Association of antlers, antlers Altai maral are most active in the world. The rapid growth of antlers begins in the spring in April and May during the high hormonal activity of the animal and ends in June. Late in the autumn, after the rut, the male maral resets ossified horns, and the following spring the cycle repeats. Antlers are cut red deer in the spring and summer.

Maral antlers can be used as a therapeutic raw materials from the third year of the deer. Complete its development deer reaches 6 – 7 years old, his antlers every year becomes more important and more processes. Adult maral antlers have up to six or eight, sometimes up to ten shoots on each branch.

Each appendix has its own name: the first supraorbital second supraorbital ice, medium, wolf, front main, rear. Upon the occurrence of full maturity horns on fork stop and subsequently maintain a constant number of processes. Old deer is considered aged 13-15 years old deer antlers are not as rich in blood and dosage strength of their much weaker.

Maral antlers are made up of 3 main layers. Exterior – normal skin, covered with a velvety nap. An external layer – a layer of fibrous connective tissue. This layer is penetrated by a large number of blood vessels, providing a growing Panthou extra food. The central part is filled with so-called “brain matter” is a precious embryonic connective tissue with cartilaginous inclusions and numerous blood vessels. In the medulla there are embryonic stem cells, and has its own centers of hematopoiesis.

Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine
A study of Maral antlers as a medicinal plant began long ago. Many researchers, highlighting the main biologically active substance antlers, convinced over time that because of the drop, as it seemed to them unnecessary lost most of the components of the original substance of red deer antlers, and secrete a substance bears only a small part their biological activity, and significantly inferior in efficiency of the starting material. Scientists for many years have carefully studied the biochemical composition as antlers and blood Maral.

Maral Hard Horns and Antlers - Raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine

Moose (Alces alces) – the largest representative of the deer family of modern and one of the largest animals of terrestrial fauna. Moose is significantly different in appearance from the other deers. The first horn of the male growing up in the late first and early in the second year of life, in the second year they have the appearance of a rather smooth and sharp needles, a length of about 20 – 30 cm. In March or in early April, its second spring a young moose resets these “spokes”, and instead begin to grow new antlers in April, has already forked ends. Moose Hard Horns grow in the form of thick, soft formations covered with fine velvety skin. They reach full growth for 2 – 2.5 months; in this period, moose antlers are tender and bleed damage. Summer Moose Hard Horns kosteneyut and dry up, the tops of their tapered, leather, covering them, dries and bursts, and in August moose rubbing against trees scraped off with this skin has got stronger horns, received a brownish color.

By the end of the second year of life of the moose-horn sculpin grow bifurcated, or “fork”, which he is in the third year. Thus there is a change of Moose Hard Horns and more. In the fourth year bull wears horns with three spikes on each. Horn between the first process and the apical fork slightly flattened, and shows the “shovel” these relatively more developed horns.

Every year, the horns are thicker, longer and harder. On the sixth or seventh year of the correctness of additional processes disrupted. Could add a year two appendages at either or both of the horns, or two years in a row can remain the same number of processes.

Do moose live in areas where they are often frightened and moose sick or injured correct growth of horns is severely impaired. Shovel stops formed or poorly developed horns are small and light, often with an uneven number of processes on both horns, even in the four-five-year steers.

The largest and most severe are moose antlers, along with 16 – 20 shoots. These horns have a wide and powerful shovel. They grasp the base of the horns and the socket is 34 – 36 centimeters.

Moose Hard Horns  - Raw Material for Traditional Chinese Medicine